ICST 2011 Final Program (PDF)
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Artificial Olfaction - The Emerging Frontier of Electronic Perception
Invited Speaker: Dr. Nabarun Bhattacharyya
Encyclopedia Britannica defines Perception in the following way:
"Perception is the process whereby sensory stimulation is translated into organized experience The experience or percept is the joint product of the stimulation and the process itself".
Relations found between various types of stimulation (e.g., obnoxious odour and sound waves) and their associated percepts suggest inferences that can be made about the properties of the stimulus and theories of perceiving then can be developed on the basis of these inferences. Because the perceptual process is not directly observable (except to the perceiver himself, whose percepts are given directly in experience), the validity of perceptual theories can be checked only indirectly. That is, predictions derived from theory are compared with appropriate empirical data, quite often through experimental research.
To technologists human perception and the mechanism of perception provides a source of inspiration for developing systems, which can emulate perceptual processes for solving complex problems. Also, properties of perceptual processes are exploited for developing processes and products, which are efficient and meet demands of human expectations. Based on these motivations, engineering research disciplines with overlapping spheres of interest have emerged over last decade which are referred to as Perception Engineering.
To this end, focused attention in the topic called Artificial Olfaction or Machine Olfaction is visible amongst the researchers all over the world Research on the topic of Machine Olfaction has steered the emergence of innovative gadgets like electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue). By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemo metrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction. But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions.
Acoustic sensor for loosening detection of hip implantate
Invited Speaker: Professor Hartmut Ewald
New Ultrasonic Thermometry and its applications to Temperature Profiling of Heated Materials
Invited Speaker: Professor Ikuo Ihara
I. Ihara1, M. Takahashi2, H. Yamada3 and A. Kosugi3
1Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Japan
In the fields of materials science and engineering, there are growing demands for monitoring temperature and its distribution of heated materials. This is because transient temperature states are closely related to the material behavior and properties. Although conventional techniques using thermocouples or infrared radiation are used for temperature measurements, they are not always acceptable for some applications such as industrial materials processes. Ultrasound, because of its sensitivity to temperature, is expected to be an alternative means for measuring temperature. In this work, new ultrasonic methods for monitoring temperature distributions of heated materials are presented. The method consists of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and an inverse analysis for determining a one-dimensional temperature distribution. To demonstrate the practical feasibility of the method, several experiments with heated materials up to 520 K have been made and successful results of temperature profiling during heating and cooling are obtained. In addition, laser ultrasound scanning methods for monitoring surface temperature distributions of heated materials are proposed and their potentials for non-contact monitoring are demonstrated. Thus, it is highly expected that the ultrasonic thermometry is a promising means for on-line temperature profiling of industrial materials processed at high temperatures.
MOS Gas Sensors: What determines our choice?
Invited Speaker: Dr. G. H. Jain
G. H. Jain
Numerous researches have shown that a characteristic of solid-state gas sensors is the reversible interaction of the gas with the surface of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) materials. In addition to the conductivity change of gas-sensing material, the detection of this reaction can be performed by measuring the change of capacitance, work function, mass, optical characteristics or reaction energy released by the gas/solid interaction. Various materials, synthesized in the form of porous ceramics, and deposited in the form of thick or thin films, are used as active layers in such gas-sensing devices. However, in spite of so big variety of approaches to MOS gas sensor design the basic operation principles of all gas sensors above mentioned are similar for all the devices. As a rule, chemical processes, which detect the gas by means of selective chemical reaction with a reagent, mainly utilize MOS chemical detection principles. The analysis of various parameters of metal oxides and the search of criteria, which could be used during material selection for MOS gas sensor applications, were the main objectives of this review. For these purposes the correlation between electro-physical (band gap, electroconductivity, type of conductivity, oxygen diffusion), thermodynamic, surface, electronic, structural properties, catalytic activity and gas-sensing characteristics of metal oxides designed for solid-state sensors was established. It has been discussed the role of metal oxide manufacturability, chemical activity, and parameter's stability in sensing material choice as well.
Prediction and Validation of Outcomes from Air Monitoring Sensors and Network of Sensors
Invited Speaker: Professor Aimé Lay-Ekuakille
2020 is a special number that indicates a key ceiling for struggling against air pollution in Europe. It means reduction of 20% of pollutants within year 2020. This idea of ceiling must be supported by advances in technologies that cover many fields, notably, efficiency in transportation, low energy consumption, efficiency in industrial processes, reduction of potential pollutants during specific activities, etc. Sensors and network of sensors are necessary for data validation, especially, for air monitoring. Several examples of data acquisition and post-processing will be presented and correlated to sensors and network of sensors. The examples will be also related to the kinds of gaseous pollutants to be held under control. Mono-parameter and multi-parameter configuration of sensors and network of sensors will be presented.
Optical Non-Invasive Monitoring of Total Haemoglobin Concentration Monitoring in Real-Time - From Research Project to Clinical Testing
Invited Speaker: Professor Elfed Lewis
E. Lewis1, U. Timm1,2, G. Leen1, J. Kraitl2, H. Ewald2, D. McGrath 3,G. Shorten4, A. Broderick4, M. Cahill4.
1University of Limerick, Optical Fibre Sensor Research Centre, Limerick, IRELAND
A non-invasive optical sensor system for the in vivo measurement of total haemoglobin based on a study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery is reported. The optical sensor, developed at University of Limerick, Ireland utilises 3 LEDs and a single wavelength sensitive photodetector which are mounted in a compact clip worn on the finger of the patient. The photoplethysmographic signals are processed in a microcontroller unit connected to the finger clip and worn on the arm of the patient. The resultant signals are transmitted wirelessly to a clinical base station where they are displayed, recorded and stored for further clinical analysis. The novel development offers a robust method for real time measurement of total haemoglobin in actual patients in the clinical environment. Results are presented from these clinical tests and are compared to 'gold standard' in-vitro methods of haemoglobin concentration.
Force and Stiffness Sensing During Robot Assisted Surgical Interventions
Invited Speaker: Professor Lakmal Seneviratne
In recent years there have been significant advances in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures. However, while robot-assisted MIS represents significant improvements over traditional MIS, it does not provide the surgeon with sense of touch from the operating interface. Many robotic surgical applications require active interactions with complex dynamic environments such as soft tissue. A fundamental understanding and sensing of the interaction dynamics between the surgical system and the environment is an essential element in accurately controlling such systems. The sensing of forces at the robot-tissue interface is a very challenging research problem. In this presentation we survey a number of force and stiffness sensors developed for surgical robotic systems. These include force and stiffness sensors based on fibre-optic and pneumatic technologies.
Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio
Invited Speaker: Professor Ramanarayanan Viswanathan
In order to utilize the available spectrum more efficiently, cognitive radio systems have been proposed. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radios allows unlicensed users to share the licensed spectrum during the absence of primary users. For achieving best spectral efficiency and non-interference with primary users, it is important to accurately detect the presence/absence of primary users. For this purpose, the solutions learned within the framework of decentralized detection in sensor networks have been considered. In this talk, we survey various approaches and the results obtained for primary user detection in cognitive radio networks.