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The 2nd International Conference on

Sensing Technology

November 26-28, 2007, Palmerston North, New Zealand

 


ICST 2007 Invited Speakers

On Board Exhaust Emission Monitoring of Road Vehicles - A High Tech Solution to Pollution from Traffic?
Elfed Lewis

Elfed Lewis
 
   

Dielectric characterization of biological tissues :
Metrological aspects of macro and micro measurements
Mustapha Nadi

Mustapha Nadi
   

Porous Silicon Sensors----Erudite and Elusive
Hiranmay Saha

Hiranmay Saha
 

An Adaptive Security System in Incrementally  Deployed Sensor Networks
Yueh-Min Huang

Yueh-Min Huang
   

Human based sensing - sensor systems to complement human perception
Peter Wide

Peter Wide
 

Elfed Lewis

Elfed Lewis was born in Holyhead, Wales in 1959. He received a BEng. Hons Degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from University of Liverpool in 1981. He was awarded a PhD from University of Liverpool in 1987 for work on high speed photography and spectroscopy of electric circuit breaker arcs during the current zero phase.

Following this, he worked as development engineer with BICC Telecom. Cables, Prescot, Merseyside in conjunction with University if Liverpool developing chromatic modulation based optical fibre sensors for a wide range of applications. In 1989 he Joined Liverpool John Moores University where he initiated the research activity in Optical Fibre Sensors. The group investigated sensors for environmental monitoring including water contamination and pH.

In 1996 he joined University of Limerick . He is Head of Department Electronic and Computer Engineering and Director of the Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre which he founded in 1996. The group are primarily engaged in investigating sensors for environmental monitoring (e.g. water quality, vehicle exhaust emissions, UV light intensity), food quality assessment and parameters associated with high power microwave sources (e.g. Electric Field, Electron Beam proximity).

On Board Exhaust Emission Monitoring of Road Vehicles - A High Tech Solution to Pollution from Traffic?

ICST 2007 Invited Speaker - Abstract

A significant proportion of the atmospheric pollution that exists particularly in urban areas arises from road vehicles and primarily cars. The European Commission (EC) have introduced a series of regulations, the so called EURO Emission directives from Euro I in 1991 to the present day Euro IV. This legislation and similar ones in other global regions have helped to greatly reduce emission levels from road transport. However, a massive increase in the number of cars on the road have meant that pollution due to a number of gases and particulate species remains to be a problem. This paper describes an approach based on optical fibre sensors which has shown to be an effective means of measuring the gases and particulates in question by using sensing technologies which are both robust and potentially cost effective such that they may be included as part of an on board monitoring system for the car of the future.


Mustapha NADI

was born in Marrakech, Morocco in 1957. He obtained his Baccalaureat in Electronics and Applied Physics in 1976 at the french Lycée Lyautey in Casablanca, his Masters in Electronics and Instrumentation at the Henri Poincaré Nancy University in 1985 and his PhD for a work on “High frequency interstitial hyperthermia” in 1990.

He is currently Professor in Electronics and Instrumentation at the University Henri POINCARE of Nancy where he teaches Electronics and Instrumentation for both graduate and undergraduate levels at the Faculty of Sciences. He was head of the Laboratoire d’Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy from 1996 to 2006. He directed over 42 Master and PhD thesis in Instrumentation and electronics and was also referee or chairman of different masters and PhD jurys in Europe, Morocco, Canada, and France. He is expert in the PCRD european research program and in biomedical technologies and electronic instrumentation for different national or international institutions (WHO, French Foreign Affairs Ministry, french Electricité de France, European standardisation committee CENELEC). His main research fields concern electronic instrumentation, biomedical engineering, biompedance spectroscopy and non linear ultrasound.

Dielectric characterization of biological tissues : Metrological aspects of macro and micro measurements

ICST 2007 Invited Speaker - Abstract

Interest in the electromagnetic properties of biological tissues began about more than one century ago. The first measured quantities were the resistance and the capacitance of ex vivo samples. Several authors have worked on dielectric characterization of biological matter, one of the most famous being Herman Schwan from the University of Pensylvannia. Biomedical apparatus based on EM fields for both therapeutical or diagnostic applications increased in the last decades while development of devices radiating electromagnetic field, like mobile phone, led to the questions of their possible biological effects. Thus, knowledge of electromagnetic properties of biological tissues are fundamental parameters that are necessary for any research in these domains.
Measurement of dielectric properties may be deduced from the bioimpedance measurement obtained by the interaction between an external electromagnetic field and a biological sample. This so called bioimpedance is now a well known tool for characterizing different physiological quantities like fat content. Other applications of bioimpedance were and are still developed in many clinical or domestic fields
Bioimpedance measurement depends on the frequency, the temperature, the geometry and the nature of the sample, and other specific parameters. One can distinguish two basic functional types, macroscopic or microscopic measurement. One important difficult problem is the interface between the electrodes and the biological tissue. Electrodes or measurement cell for macroscopic characterisation serve for bioimpedance measurement of a biological tissue sample or organ. Electrodes or measurement cell for microscopic characterisation were recently used for bioimpedance measurement of biological cell or very small cells aggregate. They are also used to characterize extracellular and intracellular fluids, or cell membrane. There is much litterature on bioimpedancemetry at macro-scale while the use of micromeasurement opens up new areas in biomedical applications. Using microelectrodes arrays, it should be possible to monitor cell movement electrically or to characterise dielectric properties of biological cell. Understanding their electromagnetic behaviour, the non linear phenomenas or analysing electromagnetic properties of an isolated cell versus an aggregate of cells, etc… are a few examples of benefits that bioimpedance spectroscopy applications will take from miniaturization in the near future.
In this paper, the metrological aspects of bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements will be reviewed and a classification based on a comparison between macro and micro measurements  will be presented.

 

Hiranmay Saha

Dr. Hiranmay Saha, B.Tech., M.Tech., Ph.D.,  is a Professor of Electronic Engineering of  Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. He is the director of IC Design & Fabrication Centre, Electronics & Tele-communication Engineering Department, Jadavpur University.
His Field of Specialization is Solid State Electronics, Microelectronics & VLSI.
He is a FIETE, Fellow WBAST., MIEEE. He has published around 100 technical papers in different international journals and conferences. He has received the following awards

  • First recipient of PVSEC National Award in 1997 by the Solar Energy Society of India for outstanding contribution in Solar Cells & Systems.

  • Second Best Paper Award in the International Conference on Preparation & Characterisation of Technologically Important Single Crystals (PCSC2001), NPL, New Delhi.

  • Fellowship of West Bengal Academy of Science and Technology.

  • Fellowship of the Institution of Electronics & Tele-communication Engineers.

Porous Silicon Sensors----Erudite and Elusive

ICST 2007 Invited Speaker - Abstract

Porous silicon is one of the most attractive host platform for fabrication of large variety of sensors. Its widely different structures (from macroporous to mesoporous to nanoporous) leading to very large surface to volume ratio, ease of fabrication distributed, nature of resistive capacitance network, natural nanocrystalline quantum wire like behavior and compatibility to silicon IC technology leading to smart sensors have been fascinating the sensor researchers all over the world for more than a decade. Extensive work has been reported on humidity sensors, organic vapour sensors and gas sensors with porous silicon as host material. Porous silicon has also been used as a sacrificial material for the fabrication of inertial sensors like pressure sensors. Recently it is reported that nanocrystalline porous silicon exhibits a very high piezoresistivity that can be utilized for the fabrication of high sensitivity pressure sensors. Porous silicon based biosensors have been drawing serious attention for the last few years. Instantaneous detection and quantification of bacteria and other organic materials including DNA measured through the change of the electrical impedance of porous silicon sensor have been reported by several groups.

Inpite of the demonstrated high potential of porous silicon as an excellent host platform for sensing applications, commercial availability of porous silicon sensors are yet to be realized. The secondary limitations of porous silicon like nonlinearity, temperature sensitivity, drift, hysteresis etc. can be overcome through ingenious and intelligent electronics that may be hybridized or integrated with the porous silicon sensor as desired. But the primary limitations of porous silicon originate from the problems of a) stable ohmic contact b) instability of porous silicon material characteristics c) lack of reproducibility. Fabrication of stable low resistance ohmic contact on porous silicon is a major challenge that has eluded the researchers so far. The composite and porous nature of porous silicon with SiO2 and void intrinsically associated with silicon crystallites is unsuitable for the most common technique of metallization by evaporation/sputtering. Attempts for alternative technique of metallization by electroless/electrochemical plating have been reported.Si/SiO2 composition and structure of porous silicon have  a tendency to undergo changes even at room temperature leading to change in its electrical and optical properties. Attempts for stabilizing its performance through oxidation have been reported. Lack of reproducibility of the porous microstructure is another burning issue for porous silicon. Use of template structure with properly cleaned standard silicon surface for porous silicon formation may lead to the solution of this problem.

Yueh-Min HuangYueh-Min Huang

Yueh-Min Huang is a Full Professor and Chair of the Department of  Engineering Science, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. His research interests include Multimedia Communications, Wireless Networks, Embedded Systems, and Artificial Intelligence. He received his MS and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Arizona in 1988 and 1991 respectively. He has co-authored 2 books and has published about 160 professional research papers. He has completed 8 Ph.D. and 60 MSES thesis students. Dr. Huang has received many research awards, including Best Paper Award of the Computer Society of the Republic of China in 2003, the Awards
of Acer Long-Term Prize in 1996, 1998, and 1999, Excellent Research Awards of National Microcomputer and Communication Contests in 2006. He also received many funded research grants from National Science Council, Ministry of Education, Industrial Technology of Research Institute, and Institute of Information Industry. Dr. Huang has been invited to give talks or served frequently in the program committee at national and international conferences. Dr. Huang is in the editorial board of the Journal of Internet Technology, International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology, International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing. Dr. Huang is a member of the IEEE and IEEE communication and computational intelligence societies.

An Adaptive Security System in Incrementally  Deployed Sensor Networks

ICST 2007 Invited Speaker - Abstract

Distributed wireless sensor networks have problems on detecting and  preventing malicious nodes, which always bring destructive threats and compromise multiple sensor nodes. Therefore, sensor networks  need to support an authentication service for sensor identity and message transmission. Furthermore, intrusion detection and prevention  schemes are always integrated in sensor security appliances so that they can enhance network security by discovering malicious or  compromised nodes. This talk provides adaptive security modules to improve secure communication of cluster-based sensor networks. A dynamic  authentication scheme in the proposed primary security module enables existing nodes to authenticate new incoming nodes, triggering  the establishment of secure links and broadcast authentication between neighboring nodes. This primary security design  prevents intrusion from external malicious nodes using the authentication scheme. For advanced security design, the proposed intrusion  detection module can exclude internal compromised nodes, which contains alarm return, trust evaluation, and black/white lists  schemes. We adopt the two above mentioned modules to achieve secure communication in cluster-based sensor networks when the  network lifetime is divided into multiple cluster rounds. Finally, the security analysis results indicate that the proposed design can  prevent and detect malicious nodes with a high probability of success by cluster-based and neighbor monitor mechanisms. According to  the performance evaluation results, the proposed security modules cause low storage, computation, and communication overhead to sensor  nodes.

Peter WidePeter Wide

Peter Wide is a Full Professor and vice-rector at Örebro university, Sweden. He received his  Licentiate of Engineering degree “Method for supervision of optical fibers in telecommunication systems “1987 and a PhD degree "The human knowledge based sensor system - an integration between artificial intelligence and human experience" 1996, both from Linköping university, Sweden.

Dr. Wide has since 1999 the position as a full professor in Measurement Science at Örebro university, Sweden. He has been a visiting researcher at Siemens Corporate R&D in Munich, Germany (1994) and at the School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE), University of Ottawa, Canada (1997). 1996 he founded the research group AASS, Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems group was its Director until 2004, which is now an international recognized research center at Örebro university (www.oru.se/aass). Between 2004-2006 he was the Dean of the Faculty of Medicin, Natural Science and Technology, He is, from April 2006, Deputy Vice-Chancellor with special university responsibilities of strategically cooperation. He is responsible for initiating a research center of Modelling and Simulation (www.oru.se/mos) at Campus Alfred Nobel, Örebro university and he is a member of the board of Robotdalen, national triple Helix initiative (www.robotdalen.se).

Dr. Wide has supervised several Phd-student,  published more than 120 refereed scientific papers and received more than 10 patents.

Dr. Wide is, co-chairing the IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Society TC-27 on "Human Computer Interfaces and Interaction", and a since several years a  member of the Organising Committee, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technical Conference.

He had a number of contracts with the European Commission in Brussels, as an expert regarding evaluation of research projects in different programs (6th frame program) during 2004-2006.
He has also been an Expert in national related scientific evaluations in Singapore, France, Italy and Canada and in Sweden.

Human based sensing - sensor systems to complement human perception

ICST 2007 Invited Speaker - Abstract

In a world where humans tend to be overloaded with information, a need to complement the human perception is in many cases requested. The ability to mimic human perception using artificial sensor systems has been an area of continuous interest since the emergence of new sensor technologies in the late 20th century. To date applications that involve artificial olfaction and taste capabilities include quality evaluation in the food industry, environmental monitoring, and detection of hazardous contamination.

Many of these applications use what is called electronic nose and taste sensors. That is to say, a sensing device of various selectivity along with a pattern recognition component trained to discriminate between both simple and complex human based sensing.

In this presentation we focus on the goal to use artificial sensors to “extend” the human perception system. By extend, we mean to displace the point of sensing away from the human body. For example, instead of using our tongue to assess the quality of a food product, an electronic tongue placed in close proximity could provide an equal (or even better) evaluation. The consequence is a new generation of sensors built for individual local use that can provide fast and accurate indications.